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Glossary

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A

Afghan
A knitted or crocheted wool blanket or robe made with a series of stripes or squares sewn together.

Alpaca
The domesticated animal cousin of the camel family and a native of the Andes. To withstand the high altitude and extreme temperature differences, alpacas grow thick coats of fleece, similar in composition to wool. Alpaca fleece feels almost as soft as cashmere. Alpacas produce yields of four to seven pounds of fleece every two years.

American Upland Cotton
Cotton traditionally grown in the southern US, now frequently grown in California, with an average "staple" (length of cotton fiber) of about 1/2" to 1". American Upland Cotton is the most common type of cotton in the world.

Angora
Wool fiber made from the hair of the angora goat. It is surprisingly warm in spite of its light weight. Because it is so light and fluffy, Angora is usually combined with other fibers to create a more durable yarn. Angora yarn gives a wonderful softness to coats, hats, gloves and other clothing, and is especially popular in sweater form.

Appliqué
A pattern of fabric that has been cut and fastened to the surface of another fabric with sewing or embroidery. Usually decorative.

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B

Baffled Box Construction
A construction used in a comforter where the top and bottom pieces of fabric are not stitched to each other but have walls or "baffles" holding them apart. This design enables the contents, usually down, to properly loft and insulate.

Ballet-Length
Length of a skirt or dress that reaches midcalf or slightly below.

Ballet-Neck
Soft, rounded neckline that is deeper and wider than a crewneck.

Balmacaan
A loose-fitting, calf-length coat with raglan sleeves and a small turn-down collar. Buttons up the front to the neck. Usually made of tweed or a water-repellent fabric.

Barratto
A tightly embroidered line of satin stitching.

Basket Weave
A weaving variation that imitates the appearance of a basket, and in which two or more yarns weave alike in both filling and warp directions.

Bateau-Neck
High neckline with a boat-like curved shape that extends to the top of each shoulder.

Batik
A traditional Indonesian textile printing method in which a design is drawn on the fabric in melted wax, covering areas that are not to be dyed. After dyeing is completed, the wax is removed.

Batiste
A sheer, fine, combed cotton fabric with a plain weave.

Bedskirt
A decorative covering for a bed that conceals everything from the top of the box spring to the floor.

Bishop Sleeve
A longer sleeve that is gathered at the cuff, creating a feminine effect.

Blanket Stitch
An overcast stitch used to finish the edges of blankets or other textile articles.

Blended Yarn
Yarn made from two or more fibers.

Block print
A type of hand printing process, which employs wood, metal or linoleum blocks on which the design is carved. One block is used for each color. The dye, which is in the form of a paste, is then applied to the face of the block, and the block is pressed or hammered against the fabric.

Boiled Wool
woven or knitted fabric that has been compressed through heat and other processes. This rich, substantial felt is so closely interlocked that it is almost impossible to distinguish the weave. It has strong shape retention, and is extremely warm and water repellent.

Bouclé
A fancy novelty yarn that creates a loopy, textural surface in knitting.

Box-Quilting
A method of quilting in which squares are stitched to hold some type of fill in place between two pieces of fabric.

Boxstitch
A construction style for a comforter where the top and bottom pieces of fabric have been quilted together in a pattern of squares. These "boxes" hold the filling contents stable so they cannot shift.

Braided Rug
A rug made from strips of fabric that are intertwined into wide, flat braids, and sewn spirally around a center to form a mat.

Brioche Rib
A sturdy, raised rib knit.

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C

Cable Stitch
A raised knitting stitch resembling twisted rope.

Calfskin Leather
Exceptionally fine, soft, tanned leather made from the hide of a calf.

Capilene®
Capilene® is a quick-drying, moisture-wicking polyester fabric that maintains warmth during high-energy outdoor activities. Choose Capilene® 1 baselayers for high-intensity, hot weather pursuits. Capilene® 2 baselayers offer breathability and versatility, and can be worn for a range of temperatures and activities. Capilene® 3 is appropriate for moderate exertion in cool or cold temperatures. Capilene® 4 is the most insulating layer, keeping you dry and warm during vigorous activity in the coldest weather.

Cashmere
The most precious of natural fibers, cashmere is the fine, soft, downy fleece of the cashmere goat. Renowned for its weightless warmth, cashmere has a sensuous softness and a luxurious hand unparalleled by any other fabric on earth.

Challis
A soft and lightweight plain-woven fabric of wool, cotton or synthetic fibers. Common uses include bedding, pajamas, dresses and children's clothing.

Chambray
Plain-weave, yarn-dyed fabric, traditionally made from cotton, having a white weft and a colored warp.

Charmeuse Silk
A lightweight silk fabric that is soft and smooth. It has a shiny satin face and dull back.

Chenille
A soft, fuzzy, pipe-cleaner style yarn that looks somewhat like a caterpillar. ("Chenille" is the French word for caterpillar.)

Chiffon Silk
Lightweight, sheer silk in a plain weave, which can have a soft or stiff finish. Chiffon looks delicate but is remarkably strong.

Combed Cotton
Cotton resulting from a process in which the cotton fibers are aligned and mechanically "combed," removing the shorter staple fibers and leaving only the better, long-staple fibers.

Comforter
A covering used instead of a blanket, made of two layers of fabric that contain a warm filling (such as down). Also called a "duvet."

Corduroy
Strong, durable fabric with vertical cut-pile stripes that are formed by an extra system of filling yarns, producing raised "cords" or ridges.

Core-Loft™
The trademarked name for a down-free fiber made exclusively for Garnet Hill that mimics the qualities of premium goose down. Providing warmth and comfort, it is a lofty hypoallergenic down alternative for comforters, blankets, pillows, and mattress pads.

Cotton Cambric
A soft, plain-weave cotton or linen fabric with a slightly lustrous finish.

Cotton Fleece
A cotton-based or pure cotton fabric with a heavy, thick, fleece-like surface. It may be either a pile fabric or simply napped for a plush, soft feel. Sometimes it can be a knit construction. This fabric is often used in sportswear, outerwear and blankets for its soft hand, warmth and durable wear.

Cotton Lawn
A very lightweight, plain weave cotton fabric.

Coverlet
A lightweight bedcover, usually quilted, used as the main decorative element, or in combination with a larger spread to add style and comfort. A coverlet is typically shorter than a bedspread, and is designed to expose a bed skirt or bed frame.

Crêpe
Fabric with a crinkled or crimped appearance, made using hard twisted yarns, textured yarns, chemical treatment, special weaves or embossing. Crêpe may be made of silk, rayon, acetate, cotton, wool, synthetic fibers or a blend thereof.

Crêpe de Chine
A fine, lightweight, plain-weave silk with a lustrous matte finish.

Crewelwork
Embroidery done with wool yarn, typically on a plain, coarsely woven fabric.

Crochet
The use of a single hooked needle to create fabric from a continuous series of yarn loops. From the French word for "hook".

Cross-dyed
A term that refers to fabric in which the warp yarns are dyed in one color and the cross yarns are dyed another color to achieve a multi-colored or iridescent effect.

Cutwork
Embroidery in which a design is outlined in buttonhole stitch and the enclosed material cut away.

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D

Darts
V-shaped tucks used to make a garment conform to the body.

Delavé
Fine linen with a variegated appearance, which has been specially dyed for soft dimensional color and pre-washed for a weathered look.

Denim
Sturdy, serviceable fabric woven in a twill weave, usually with an indigo-blue warp and a white filling.

Dobby
A decorative band usually woven in a pattern of small geometric figures, often found on towels.

Double Knit
Fabric knitted with two sets of needles, producing a twice-knitted appearance. Double-knit jerseys have a firmer texture than conventional jerseys of single-needle construction and are usually heavier, although they can be knitted in very light weights.

Double Weave
A weave that combines two sets of yarns woven in such a way that only one set is apparent on either side of the fabric.

Down
Soft, fluffy, shaftless clusters from the breasts and underbellies of geese, ducks and other water fowl. A popular filler for comforters, pillows and outerwear.

Dupioni Silk
Irregular, rough silk that creates an interesting textural appearance when woven into fabric.

Duvet
A bed covering filled with insulating fibers. "Duvet" is the French word for comforter.

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E

Easy Care
Term that describes fabrics that have been treated so that they do not need ironing.

Eco-Cashmere
Eco-cashmere is made from cashmere wool that has not been bleached or dyed. Reduced processing results in a sustainable fiber that is fine in texture, lightweight and extremely soft, with subtle, natural color variations of brown, tan, gray and cream.

Egyptian Cotton
A general classification for strong, lustrous, long-staple cotton produced largely in the Nile Valley, although it is grown elsewhere in the world as well. Egyptian cotton staples are one and one-eighth to one and one-half inches long.

Embroidery
Decoration by needle-worked thread, yarn or other flexible materials.

Espadrille
A rope-soled shoe with canvas upper.

European-length
A dress length that falls to the middle of the calf.

Eyelet
A decorative accent consisting of a small hole edged with stitching. Sometimes laced with yarn or a cord for fastening.

Eyelet Lace
Lace knit or woven from fine threads and featuring large holes resembling eyelets.

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F

Fair Isle
A traditional type of knitted design from Scotland's highlands and the islands of Orkney and Shetland. Named after Fair Isle, the southernmost Shetland Isle, the pattern consists of at least two yarns worked at alternating intervals.

Favorite Rise
The waistband sits 2” below the navel.

Feather Bed
Originally a mattress stuffed with feathers; today, feather beds are placed on top of the mattress and beneath the fitted sheet for comfort and insulating warmth.

Featherstitch
A decorative embroidery stitch arranged to produce a branching zigzag line. Often used to sew on blanket bindings.

Fill Power
The volume that one ounce of down will fill when measured in cubic inches. The higher the fill power, the more insulating the down.

Fisherman Knits
Distinctive dimensional patterns rich in folk art history, originating on the Aran Islands off the Bay of Galway in Ireland. Handed down for generations, family patterns were so personalized that they identified the wearer as distinctly as the family name.

Flannel
A soft woven cotton or worsted fabric with a loose texture and a napped surface. Flannel sheets are napped on one or both sides. Warmth depends on the soft, twisted yarns that provide air pockets of interlocking fibers.

Flat Sheet
Top sheet.

Flat-weave
A plain weave that has no pile.

Fleece
Wool sheared from sheep or goats. Also the term used for fabric resembling fleece but made of cotton, polyester or other fibers.

Foulard
A soft, lightweight fabric such as silk, rayon, or cotton twill with a small-scale printed design.

French Terry
Knit fabric that has a smooth side reversing to a looped terry backing.

Fuji Silk
A lightweight, plain-weave fabric traditionally made of spun silk yarns.

Full-fashioned
A term applied to the shaping of knit fabric by increasing or decreasing the number of wales, used to form armholes and necklines. Distinguished by "V" and "bird's eye" markings.

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G

Garment Dyeing
The dyeing of a garment after it has been constructed.

Garter Stitch
A simple knitting stitch where every row is knitted (there are no purl rows or purl stitches).

Garment Washed
Describes an article of clothing that has been put through a laundering process that softens the item or alters its appearance. A slightly worn/washed look is achieved through the use of pumice stones or enzymes.

Gauge
The size of the knitted stitch produced by yarn thickness and needle size, or the number of stitches per inch.

Gauze
Thin, sheer, open-weave fabric typically made of cotton or silk.

Georgette Silk
Plain-weave silk that is sheer and lightweight, with a crinkled or grained surface.

Giclée
A high-resolution, digital printing process that uses archival quality, fade-resistant inks and is rendered onto acid-free paper, photographic paper or canvas. Giclée prints offer superior image detail and color accuracy.

Green Cotton
An environmentally friendly cotton grown without chemicals and produced using ecologically sound dyeing and processing methods.

Godet
Triangular inset that adds flare and fullness to a garment. Often used in skirts, dresses and sleeves.

Gros Point
A large stitch used in embroidery or needlepoint.

Gusset
A triangular insert, as in the seam of a garment, for added strength or expansion.

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H

Habutai
Soft, lightweight, plain-weave silk, originally woven on Japanese hand looms.

Hand
The characteristic of fabrics that is perceived by touching, rubbing or squeezing. A fabric's "hand" describes its tactile qualities such as softness, fineness and resilience.

Hand-Carved Rug
A rug on which pile is sheared in certain areas after manufacture to create a design or to highlight design elements with various heights of pile.

Hand-Knotted Rug
A rug produced by the lacing or tying of a yarn through the base fabric around the warp yarns. Because it is created one knot at a time, the design can be very intricate. The pattern of a hand-knotted rug can be seen on the back in the rows of tiny knots. Hand-knotted rugs are more durable than other rugs.

Hand-loomed
Produced on manually operated knitting machines that have a wide range of design capabilities and offer faster production than hand-knitting.

Heather
Mixed, multi-colored yarns, the fibers of which have been dyed in different shades of the same color before spinning.

Hemp
Strong and slightly lustrous, this natural fiber, derived from the bark of the hemp plant, is ideal for making cords, twine, rugs and straw bags. Finer grades of hemp are used for weaving more refined textiles such as bedding and clothing.

Hemstitching
A decorative stitch in which several parallel yarns are removed from the fabric and the remaining cross yarns are caught together at regular intervals and encircled by embroidery thread, creating an even openwork design.

Herringbone Weave
A weave that displays rows of diagonal parallel lines that alternate in direction from one row to the next, resulting in a zigzag effect. One of the most common twill weaves, it is popular for dress coats, suits and jackets. Also called a chevron weave.

High-Low Rug
A rug on which certain areas of pile are sheared to form a pattern, creating pile that is higher in some areas than others.

Hooked Rug
A rug on which a hook or needle is used to pull loops of heavy yarn or strips of fabric through a foundation of coarse canvas or burlap to form a kind of pile.

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I

Ikat
A fabric whose yarns have been tied for dyeing before weaving, thus creating a variegated pattern when woven.

Inseam
The measurement from the crotch to the hem of a pant. Regular is usually 32½”. Long is usually 34”. Petite is usually 29”.

Insuloft™
The trademark name of pure white goose down that has been carefully cleaned to remove the allergy-causing impurities.

Intarsia
A design motif that is knit into a sweater.

Interlock
A knit of two interlocked yarns creating a 1 x 1 rib with the same stitch structure on either side. Resilient interlock fabric is versatile in application, from underwear to outerwear.

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J

Jacquard
The weave of a fabric produced on a jacquard loom. The weaving threads are individually controlled on the loom, creating elaborate and complicated patterns. On jacquard-woven fabric, the design appears in relief on the reverse side.

Jersey
A plain knitted fabric that is created by knitting one row and purling the next.

Jodphur-Style Pants
Originally worn for horseback riding, Jodhpurs are often made of stretchy fabrics that allow for enhanced flexibility and range of motion. Fashioned with a patch along the inside of the knee to reduce wear, they have tapered, slim-fitting legs designed to tuck neatly into boots. Originating in the city of Jodhpur in India, the style was adapted by the British military during colonial campaigns in the country.

Jute
A strong, coarse fiber used for cordage obtained from two East Indian plants of the linden family.

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K

Kilim
A heavyweight, hand-woven, reversible rug with no pile or nap. The pattern consists of geometrical shapes in a great variety of colors.

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L

Lambswool
Lambswool is the first shearing of the lamb, clipped before the animal is nine months old. It is usually very soft and fine.

Leno Weave
A strong, open, mesh-like weave created by paired and intertwined yarns.

Lettuce Edge
An edge treatment on knit fabrics in which the edge of the fabric is stretched during stitching and then overstitched, resulting in a wavy or "curly" edge.

Linen
One of the oldest textile fibers, the finest linen comes from the blue-flowered flax plant grown mainly in France, Belgium and the Netherlands. Linen is breathable, comfortable in warm weather, has excellent color fastness, and is also one of the strongest natural fibers.

Loft
The ability of an insulating fiber to return to its normal position after being compressed.

Low Rise
The waistband sits more than 2” below the navel.

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M

Maco Cotton
A smooth, lustrous, long-staple cotton originally derived from a cross between Egyptian tree cotton and American Sea Island cotton.

Macramé
A method of weaving and knotting cords in a web of symmetrical patterns to create a decorative handcrafted lace, wall hanging or piece of jewelry.

Marl Yarn
Varicolored yarn produced by twisting together two or more strands of different colors.

Matelassé
Fabric woven on a jacquard loom that has a raised pattern with a quilted character. To create matelassé, coarse yarns and ordinary yarns are interlaced in the warp and weft. In finishing, the coarse yarn shrinks at a different rate from the ordinary yarn, causing the ordinary yarn to pucker, which gives the fabric a quilted or padded effect. From a French word that means "cushioned" or "padded."

Mattress Pad
An extra layer of cushioning added to a mattress for sleeping comfort and mattress protection.

Melton Wool
A soft, warm, smooth fabric that has a short nap and is tightly woven.

Mercerized Cotton
Cotton from yarns that have been specially treated to increase strength, smoothness and luster.

Merino Wool
The world's most valuable wool, produced by the Merino sheep. It is noted for softness, fineness, strength and elasticity.

Microfiber
Extremely fine synthetic filament used to produce very lightweight, soft fabrics.

MicroModal®
A finely knit, mercerized fabric with the soft hand of cotton, a silk-like sheen and great wicking properties.

Mock Turtleneck
Shirt or sweater with a high knit collar that imitates the look of a turtleneck but does not roll down.

Modacrylic
A lightweight synthetic knit renowned for its softness, resilience and excellent color retention. It is also naturally flame resistant without chemical treatment, making it an ideal fiber for children's sleepwear.

Modal
A variety of rayon, modal is a naturally derived fiber spun of cellulose from beech trees. Strong and breathable, modal is 50% more absorbent than cotton, easy to care for and naturally wrinkle resistant, making it an ideal material for active and travel clothing. Smooth, soft and slightly stretchy, modal fabric has a subtle luster and graceful drape.

Mohair
A soft, long, lustrous fiber obtained from the Angora goat. The fluffy hair is springy and curly; it can be densely woven for warmth or loosely woven for breathability.

Mules
Open-backed, slip-on footwear.

Muslin
Cotton sheeting with less than 180 thread count (more than 180 is percale).

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N

Nap
A fuzzy finish raised on cloth made of loosely twisted yarns, by brushing the surface on one or both sides of the fabric.

Napa Leather
Soft leather made by treating sheepskin with a mixture of soap and oil.

Nubuck
A type of softly sueded leather used for shoes.

Nylon
One of the first fully manufactured fibers, renowned for its superior strength, durability and quick-drying properties. This long-lasting synthetic fabric also inherently resists abrasion, mildew and exposure to chemicals.

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O

Openwork Stitching
Running in either a zigzag or ladder pattern, this stitch joins two fabrics and leaves spaces along the seam. Also the term for a stitch that creates open spaces in a fabric when tightly pulled.

Organdy
Sheer, lightweight cotton fabric with a stiff, crisp, clear finish.

Organic Cotton
Cotton fiber grown in fields that have been certified as having not been treated with inorganic chemicals or pesticides for at least three years.

Organza
Lightweight, thin, transparent fabric with a crisp hand.

Oxford
Soft, porous cotton fabric made with a modified plain or basket weave, frequently used to make pajamas and shirts.

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P

Pashmina
The softest form of cashmere, spun from the ultra-fine fibers gathered from the underbelly of the Himalayan mountain goat. (Not to be confused with Shatoosh, which is the wool of Tibetan male antelopes that are slaughtered for their valuable fleece. Garnet Hill does not sell and has never sold any products made of Shatoosh.)

PCR®
A registered trademark of Patagonia®, PCR® stands for Post Consumer Recycled and refers to a special process in which plastic soda bottles are recycled for use as fleece.

Peached
Describes fabric that has been through an abrasive process to create a soft, slightly fuzzy finish similar to the fur of a peach.

Percale
A smooth, luxurious plain weave with over 180 threads per square inch, sometimes reaching 300 to 400 threads per square inch (less than 180 thread count is muslin).

Petit Point
A small, fine stitch used in embroidery or needlepoint.

Pick
The strand of yarn that runs left to right (weft) in a woven fabric.

Picot Trim
Small, decorative series of loops along the edge of a fabric.

Piece Dyed
Fabrics that are dyed after they have been woven or knitted.

Pile
Raised loops, threads or other yarns that stand away from the foundation fabric on which they are placed. A pile may form all or part of the surface of a fabric.

Pima Cotton
A superior variety of cotton named after the Pima tribe of Native Americans, and grown primarily in Peru and in the southwestern US. Pima cotton has a smooth, extra-long staple that imparts a silky quality to its yarn.

Pic Stitch
A small running stitch. Often used at the edge of a lapel or collar.

Pintuck
A narrow pleat of fabric used as a decorative accent. Often used on the bodice of a blouse or dress.

Piping
A narrow piece of bias-cut fabric folded over and stitched into a seam between a fabric edge and facing to form a decorative trim.

Piqué Knit
Knitted fabric that imitates the textural look of woven piqué fabric.

Plain Weave
The most common weave, plain weave is also referred to as "one up, one down" or "tabby weave." It is a simple weave constructed by passing each weft yarn over and under each warp yarn, creating more thread intersections per inch than any other weave. Plain weave is used in many familiar fabrics, such as broadcloth, calico, muslin and taffeta.

Pleats
Fabric folds made by doubling the material over onto itself.

Plissé
Finish resulting from chemical treatment, characterized by a puckered or crinkled appearance. Also the term used for fabrics displaying this finish.

Ply
The number of single yarns or strands twisted together to form a ply yarn. Two single yarns twisted together form a 2-ply yarn, three a 3-ply yarn, etc.

Pocket Depth
The depth of the corner of a fitted sheet, usually indicating what size mattress it will fit.

Pointelle
Openwork pattern on knitted fabrics in a variety of designs that add a look of delicacy.

Polarguard®
Trademark name of various polyester fiberfills used for insulation in outerwear and sleeping bags.

Poplin
A durable plain-weave fabric with fine cross ribs.

Princess Seaming
Continuous vertical panels that follow the shape of the body through the torso without a waistline seam.

Pure Finish
An additional cleansing wash performed on completed fabric that removes the remaining traces of chemicals used during the fabric finishing process.

Purl Edge
A hem that is finished without turning back the fabric and by using tightly stitched loops or a looped edge.

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Q

Quilt
A cotton bed cover, created of whole cloth or pieced together.

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R

Racerback
A design often used in bras, tank tops and swimsuits that features a single strap between the shoulder blades.

Raffia
A fiber obtained from the leaves of the raffia palm, used in strips for making mats, baskets, hats, fabrics, etc.

Raglan Sleeve
A sleeve that extends to the neckline, set in by front and back seams slanting from the underarm.

Ramie
A soft, natural fiber yielded by the inner bark of various species of the ramie plant. The ramie plant is an Asian shrub with characteristics very similar to the flax plant; consequently, it is often used to produce a linen-like fabric.

Rickrack
A narrow, usually flat zigzag braid or ribbon used as a trim.

Ring Spun
Describes yarn that has been strengthened through a twisting process. Ring-spun cotton yarns are often used in the construction of denim.

Ripstop
An extremely refined woven fabric (often made of cotton or nylon) consisting of strong warp and fill yarns that are strategically spaced in intervals to control and resist tearing. Ripstop construction is an ideal fabrication for durable outerwear and sportswear.

Rise
The placement of the waistband in relation to the navel. Traditional rise sits at or just below the navel. Favorite rise sits 2” below the navel. Low rise sits more than 2” below the navel.

Ruching
Gathering of fabric for a rippled effect. Also refers to quilting, crimping or pleating in fabric, lace or ribbon.

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S

Sandwashed
Treated with sand, pebbles or other abrasives in the washing process to soften the fabric.

Sateen
Smooth, glossy cotton fabric with a lustrous finish.

Satin
A smooth, generally lustrous fabric with a thick, close texture, frequently made of silk.

Sea Island Cotton
Ultra-luxurious cotton, originally grown in the West Indies, with staples up to 2 1/2".

Seed Stitch
A knitting stitch that forms a tiny checkerboard pattern by alternating stitches of knitting and purling.

Seersucker
A light cotton fabric with a permanent, woven crinkled texture. Often yarn-dyed in stripes.

Shaker Knit
A plain ribbed knit in a heavy yarn and coarse stitch used in bulky sweaters.

Sham
A decorative pillowcase not intended to be slept upon.

Shantung Silk
Textured silk in which yarns retain knots, lumps and other imperfections to create an irregular surface.

Shatoosh
The wool of the "chiru," a Tibetan male antelope that is slaughtered to harvest its valuable fleece. (Not to be confused with pashmina. Garnet Hill does not sell and has never sold any products made of shatoosh.)

Shearling
The skin of a sheep with the unsheared wool fleece still attached.

Sherpa Fleece
A thick knit fabric with a pile face that, unlike regular fleece, has not been cut and therefore has a more textural look and feel.

Shetland Wool
A springy, medium-textured wool originating from a breed of sheep on the Shetland Isles.

Silk
Superbly soft and shiny, beautiful silk is actually an animal fiber spun by the silkworm while it constructs its cocoon. Silk is temperature regulating; it keeps wearers warm in winter and cool in summer by transporting moisture away from the body and into the air. It is also a wonderful fiber for allergy sufferers.

Slubbed
A fiber that has been twisted and knotted in preparation for spinning to produce an irregular, textured appearance.

Smocking
Fabric that is gathered and then stitched with firm, ornamental rows of embroidery.

Soutache
A narrow flat braid, often made of mohair, silk or rayon, used for borders, patterns and decorative accents.

Space-Dyeing
A yarn dyeing or printing process in which individual strands receive more than one color at irregular intervals, producing a random design.

Spandex
An anagram of the word "expands," Spandex is a generic term for various manmade textile fibers made chiefly of polyurethane, which are stretchable, lightweight and resistant to body acid.

Staple
Term used to indicate lengths of fiber that require spinning and twisting to manufacture a yarn.

Stitch-in-the-ditch
A method of quilting in which the stitches are sewn along the seam lines of the pieced pattern of the quilt top, and therefore appear invisible except from the back.

Supima®
A trademark name used in the marketing of pima cotton, it is an acronym for "superior pima."

Surplice
A crossover neckline detailing a blouse, dress or robe, with one side overlapping the other to form a V in the center. Considered a flattering style on any figure, the surplice neckline was introduced in the 1920s and has been used since.

Synchilla® Fleece
A Patagonia® trademarked term for much of their polyester fleece. It can be two sided or single sided and comes in many different weights. Most forms, but not all, are made from recycled polyester and 100% of it is now recyclable under Patagonia's® Common Threads Recycling Program.

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T

Tactel®
A stretchy, nylon fabric that offers strength, softness and breathability. Often used in swimwear, sportswear and undergarments.

Taffeta
A crisp, often lustrous fabric with a fine, smooth surface usually made in a plain weave, sometimes with a small crosswise rib.

Tape Yarn
A flat yarn that has been tubularly knitted or flat woven of several fine fibers. The unique shape of the yarn creates a textural appearance when used for weaving or knitting.

Tattersall
A pattern of squares formed by colored crossbars, usually executed in two colors against a solid-color background.

Tencel
A strong, easy-care fabric, tencel is made of natural cellulose derived from sustainably harvested wood pulp from renewable tree farms. Introduced in 1991, this modern, eco-friendly fabric is also known as lyocell. Buttery-soft, smooth and elegant, it has a luxurious hand and elegant drape yet is highly absorbent and versatile. Tencel is widely used in clothing and home textiles, from denim, chino and casual attire to bath towels and bed linens.

Terry Velour
A terry cloth with the looped pile sheared on one side for a velvet-like effect.

Terry Cloth
A woven fabric with looped pile on one or both sides, often used for towels, beach robes and lounge wear.

Thread Count
Total number of threads running in both directions per square inch in a woven fabric.

Topstitching
A line of stitching on the outside of a garment close to a seam.

Traditional Rise
The waistband sits at or just below the navel.

Tufted Rug
A rug created by a process in which yarns carried by hollow needles are punched through a backing material to form rows of tufts. A latex coating can be applied to the back of the carpeting to hold the pile firmly in place. Pile may be cut or uncut, high or low. Quality depends on fiber used, tuft density, and size and twist of yarn.

Tussah Silk
A strong, coarse, light-brown silk produced by various undomesticated Asiatic silkworms.

Twill Weave
A basic weave characterized by a diagonal rib, or twill line. Twill weaves are used to produce strong, durable fabrics.

Twin Set
A lightweight cardigan with a matching sleeveless or short-sleeved pullover, usually worn as a set.

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U

Universal Fitted Sheet
A bottom sheet that is elasticized all the way around, providing an easier fit around a mattress than a regular fitted sheet, which is only elasticized on the corners. A universal fitted sheet can accommodate a wide range of mattress depths.

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V

Velour
A woven or knitted fabric with a pile or napped surface resembling velvet. In heavier weights, it is used for upholstery and curtains; in lighter weights, it is made into clothing.

Velvet
A warp-pile fabric with short, closely-woven cut pile that gives the fabric a rich, soft texture. Originally made of silk, now also made of cotton.

Velveteen
Cotton fabric with a short filling pile resembling velvet.

Virgin Wool
Wool that is being used for the first time in a fabric (as opposed to reclaimed or reprocessed wool).

Viscose
A type of rayon; made from wood cellulose.

Voile
Lightweight open-weave fabric made of tightly twisted combed yarns that give it a grainy feel and a crisp hand.

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W

Waffle Weave
A weave that produces a textured fabric with a pattern of recessed squares similar in appearance to a waffle. Also called a "honeycomb" weave.

Wale
One of a series of ribs, cords or raised portions in a woven fabric such as corduroy. The number of wales per inch is a measure of the fineness of the fabric. The higher the number, the finer the fabric.

Warp
Yarn that runs vertically in a fabric and is interwoven into the weft.

Weft
Yarn that runs horizontally in a fabric and is interwoven into the warp.

Whipstitching
A finishing stitch on the edge of a fabric that passes over the edge diagonally.

Wool
An animal protein fiber that is sheared from sheep. Wool-bearing domestic sheep are raised in almost every country of the world. There are hundreds of varieties and breeds, producing a wide range of fiber types from ultra-soft to crisp, making wool one of the most versatile of animal fibers.

Wool Crêpe
Fine, soft, lightweight fabric in a plain weave made of crinkled or textured wool yarns that give a pebbled surface to the fabric.

Wool Jersey
Luxury fabric of worsted wool in single or double knit noted for its resilience and softness.

Worsted Wool
Yarn made from long fibers that have been combed, spun, and then tightly twisted. Also, a smooth, woven or knitted fabric made from worsted wool yarns.

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X

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Y

Yarn-Dyed
Describing fabric in which the yarns have been individually dyed before being woven or knitted, usually to produce stripes, plaids or checks.

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Z

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